The seed is a special multicellular structure of a complex structure that serves for reproduction and dispersal of seed plants, usually developing after fertilization from the ovule (modified female sporangium) and containing the embryo.
All flowering plants multiply with the help of seeds. The seed contains everything needed for the growth of a new plant.
The main part of the seed is the embryo, which is the germ of a new plant. In order for the embryo to develop, the seed contains a supply of nutrients. The outside of the seed is covered by the seed coat.
All seeds have an embryo, nutrient reserves and a seed coat.
The embryo is the embryo of the future plant.
It consists of an embryonic root, an embryonic stalk, an embryonic bud, and cotyledons.
The embryonic root is the rudiment of a new root. When the seed germinates, it develops first, breaks the seed skin and becomes fixed in the soil.
The embryonic stem is the rudiment of a new stem. It is located between the embryonic kidney and the embryonic root.
The leaves, branches, flowers of the plant develop from the embryonic bud.
The cotyledons are the first leaves of the embryo. The number of cotyledons in a plant seed is an important trait. It is used to divide all flowering plants into two large groups: monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous.
Plants with one cotyledon in their seeds are called monocotyledons.
Monocots are rye, wheat, oats, corn, lilies, onions and other plants.
Plants with two cotyledons in their seeds are called dicotyledons.
Dicotyledons make up a very large group of plants. For example, cucumbers, pumpkins, peas, beans, apple trees, and daisies are dicotyledonous.
Nutrients can be separated from the embryo and stored in a special storage tissue called the endosperm; or may be found in its cotyledons.