The struggle between popes and German emperors

• 11-12 centuries. – the struggle for social influence between the German emperors and the popes in the form of a rivalry for the right to appoint clerical and secular positions – INVESTMENT. In Western Europe in the Middle Ages, the legal act of transferring a fief (feud), office, dignity, which consolidated vassal dependence, was accompanied by a symbolic ceremony: the transfer of a handful of earth, gloves, sword, spear, banner, scepter, etc., symbols of power to the lord to the vassal.
• CHURCH INVESTMENT consisted of an appointment to a church office and an induction; it was accompanied by two acts: the handing over of the staff and ring, symbolizing spiritual power, and the handover of land ownership and the scepter, the symbol of secular power.
• In the struggle for investiture, on the one hand, adherents of the Church of Cluny reform, headed by HILDEBRAND (from 1073 – PAPA GRIGORY VII), and on the other, supporters of the preservation of secular investiture, headed by Emperor Henry IV, spoke out. The open struggle of the papacy with the imperial power began in 1075, after the accession to the papal throne GREGORY VII.
• The Council of 1075 declared the investiture of the clergy to be secular persons invalid. In a fierce and prolonged struggle, the critical episode of which was Canossa (1077), neither side was able to win.
• In 1122 the Worms concordat was concluded, ending the struggle for investiture. As a result, secular monarchs were forced to repent.

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