The variety and types of mosses.

Let’s look at some of the most common types of mosses.

Liver mosses
Marshallia vulgaris belongs to liver mosses. Its thallus is several centimeters long and wide. The marschania has no stem and leaves. The function of the roots is performed by rhizoids. On the thallus there are round formations (A) in which male germ cells develop, and flower-like outgrowths in which female germ cells are formed (B).

Leaf mosses
The cuckoo flax moss belongs to the leafy mosses. In its leaves, just like in other plants, photosynthesis takes place – nutrients are formed. In wet weather, the leaves straighten out to absorb moisture from the air; in dry weather, the leaves curl up and press against the stem to reduce evaporation of water. The cuckoo flax has female and male plants. At the top of the female plant, on a long stem, a cap-covered capsule develops – sporangium. Disputes form in the sporangium. In dry weather, the cap is shed and the spores dissipate. The spore grows in moist soil. From it, a branching thread develops, similar to filamentous algae, on which buds are formed, giving rise to new male and female plants of cuckoo flax.

Sphagnum is a representative of white mosses. Unlike green mosses, it has no rhizoids. It is a highly branching plant. The stem and twigs are covered with small light green scaly leaves. Each leaf consists of one layer of two types of cells: narrow green (with chloroplasts, in which photosynthesis takes place) and larger, dead transparent air cells with destroyed cytoplasm, into which air or water can enter. Dead cells can absorb water 20 – 25 times more than their mass and hold it for a long time, gradually giving it to living cells. Sphagnum also multiplies with spores that mature in the sporangium.

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