Vegetative propagation of flowering plants is widespread in nature, but it is even more often used by humans when propagating agricultural and ornamental plants.
Most often, plants reproduce vegetatively by cuttings.
A stalk is a segment of any vegetative organ.
Propagation by stem cuttings
Many trees and shrubs (poplar, willow, currants, roses), as well as perennial ornamental (phlox) and indoor plants (balsam, coleus, pelargonium, etc.) are propagated by stem cuttings (a segment of a shoot with several buds).
To do this, in the spring, before bud break, annual lignified cuttings 25 – 30 cm long are planted in well-prepared soil. By the fall, adventitious roots will grow on the cuttings. Then the cuttings are dug up and planted in a permanent place.
Propagation by root cuttings
For the propagation of plants in which adventitious buds can form on the roots, root cuttings are used (a root segment 15-25 cm long). Garden raspberries, rose hips, some varieties of apple trees and ornamental plants are propagated by root cuttings.
Aboveground shoots develop on a root cuttings planted in the soil from the adventitious buds, from the bases of which the adventitious roots grow. A new, independently existing plant develops.
Reproduction by root suckers
In such plants as aspen, mountain ash, poplar, lilacs, cherries, raspberries, thistles, willow-herb, shoots grow from the adventitious buds on the roots – root suckers. These plants are called root suckers.
Over time, in root-sucking perennials, the old root sections are destroyed, and the offspring become independent plants.
Propagation by leaf cuttings
Some types of indoor plants – begonia rex, sansevieru, saintpaulia (uzambara violet) are propagated by leaf cuttings. The leaves are planted in wet sand, and adventitious buds and adventitious roots develop on them. In nature, the meadow core multiplies with leaves.