Water as a condition for plant life
The plant is 70 – 95% water. All vital processes of plants proceed with the use of water: water in the form of solutions filling the cells and tissues of the plant, provides it with elasticity, preservation of a certain shape.
With water, mineral salts from the soil enter the plant.
Water provides a continuous flow of nutrients through the plant’s conducting system.
Water takes part in photosynthesis.
A significant amount of water evaporates through the stomata of the leaves. This moisture loss is regularly replenished as the plants constantly absorb water from the soil using the root hairs of the root.
The absorption of water from the soil and its loss during evaporation create a constant water exchange in the plant.
Water exchange is carried out with the flow of water through all organs of the plant and consists of three stages:
absorption of water by roots,
moving it through the vessels of wood,
evaporation of water by leaves.
Usually, with normal water exchange, how much water enters the plant, so much of it evaporates. If the consumption of water by evaporation exceeds its input (for example, on a hot day), the leaves of the plant wither, especially the lowest ones. During the night hours, when the roots continue to absorb water, and evaporation decreases, the water content in the cells is restored again, and the plant organs again acquire an elastic state.
The main way water enters living cells is its osmotic absorption.
Osmosis is the ability of water to flow from the environment into cellular solutions. In this case, the flow of water leads to an increase in the volume of fluid in the cell.
The force of osmotic absorption with which water enters the cell is called the suction force.