Carbohydrates are organic substances containing a carbonyl group and several hydroxyl groups. In many living systems, carbohydrate molecules act as energy sources. By combining glucose molecules as the main building blocks, complex carbohydrates can be obtained. One of the most important carbohydrates can be considered sugar glucose containing six carbon atoms (C6H12O6). Glucose is the end product of photosynthesis and, therefore, the basis of the entire food chain in the biosphere. Like proteins, carbohydrates play an auxiliary role in cells, as they enter into cellular structures. For example, plant fibers are composed of cellulose, which is a string of specially linked glucose molecules. More examples: starch, glycogen,
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