Depending on the chemical structure of the carbohydrate component, nucleic acids are divided into two types: deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic; the former contain deoxyribose, and the latter contain ribose. Nitrogen bases are derivatives of two types of compounds – purines and pyrimidines. They are called bases because they have basic (alkaline) properties, although weak. The composition of DNA contains two purine-adenine (A) and guanine (G) and two pyrimidine – cytosine (C) and thymine (T) bases. Uracil (U) is usually found in RNA instead of thymine. According to the rules of international nomenclature, these bases are written with the initial letters of their names in English, although the initial letters of Russian names are often used in Russian-language literature; A, G, C, T, and U respectively. Proteins and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are biopolymers. Their main difference in composition. Protein monomers are amino acids, and nucleotide monomers are nucleotides. The composition of natural proteins includes 20 varieties of amino acids, and the composition of nucleic acids – 5 different nucleotides.
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