What are the advantages of angiosperms over gymnosperms?

A comparison of these characters convinces that angiosperms have reached a higher level of evolutionary development than gymnosperms and all other representatives of the plant kingdom. Angiosperms could grow in a wide variety of living conditions. They were able to populate various soils (acidic, salty, fertile, infertile), live on stones, trunks of other plants, on the walls of houses, grow in different climatic zones – from a hot tropical zone to cold tundra. Growth in different conditions contributed to the formation of a huge variety of life forms and ecological groups of angiosperms. Among them there are trees, shrubs, shrubs, shrubs, grasses. Among the herbs there are rooted, bulbous, rhizome, lianas, epiphytes, creeping, tuber-forming and many other forms. There are angiosperms, moisture-loving and dry-loving, light and shade-loving. The predominant number of flowering plants are true autotrophic plants. But among them there are heterotrophically feeding ones, for example, parasitic plants and predator plants (insectivores). Due to this diversity, flowering plants have occupied different habitats on Earth: from deserts to swamps and ponds, from salty sea coasts to high mountain cliffs.

No. Angiosperms Gymnosperms
1 Form seeds Form seeds
2 Develop flower They do not form flowers
3 Develop fruits Fruits do not develop
4 They have ovules. They are in the ovary of a pestle They have ovules. They lie open (bare) on the scales of the bumps
5 Pollination is performed by animals, wind, water; self-pollination possible Pollination is done by the wind
6 Pollen falls on the stigma Pollen hits the ovules directly
7 There is a stigma that promotes the capture and germination of pollen There is no special pollen collecting organ
8 In the ovule with a small number of divisions (2-3), there is an accelerated development of the embryo sac with one egg In the ovule, with a large number of divisions (more than 8), a multicellular organ with several eggs is formed
9 Double fertilization One sperm fertilization of one egg
10 Wood is represented by vessels and tracheids Wood (xylem) is represented exclusively by tracheids
eleven Complex sieve tubes Sieve tubes have a simple structure
12 There are woody, shrubby and grassy forms Woody forms prevail, no grassy


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