What are the biggest changes in the political map of Europe for the 19th century

Imperial aspirations of Napoleon at the beginning of the XIX century. for a short time made almost all of Europe part of the French Empire. From part of the possessions of the Habsburg dynasty, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was formed, which by the end of the XIX century. became the largest state in foreign Europe by area and disintegrated only in 1918
The Balkans and part of the Mediterranean for a long time were under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, which finally collapsed only after the First World War.
The European colonization of the New World, the economic and political development of new territories have led to significant changes on the political map:
new forms of government and government appeared. The largest metropolises. Became Spain and Portugal, later they were joined by Britain, France, the Netherlands, Germany. Territories in America, Africa, Asia (with rare exceptions) received the status of colonies and protectorates. It began at the end of the XVIII – at the beginning of the ХТХ century. the national liberation movement in America led to the emergence of new independent states, the vast majority of which chose the republican form of government.
At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. the struggle between the leading metropolises over the territorial redistribution of the world, the peak of which was the First World War, intensified.

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