The main structural unit of proteins are amino acid molecules. To understand what an amino acid is, imagine a set of atoms in which hydrogen protrudes outward on one side, oxygen and hydrogen connected together, and various other components in the middle. Just as beads are strung on a thread, proteins are assembled from these amino acids – the hydrogen ion (H +) of one amino acid combines with the hydroxyl ion (OH–) of another amino acid to form a water molecule. (Imagine how each time when two amino acid molecules combine, a drop of water runs between them).
The sequence and ratio of amino acids in the primary structure determines the further behavior of the molecule: its ability to bend, fold, form certain bonds within itself. Molecular forms created during coagulation can subsequently take a secondary, tertiary and quaternary level of organization.
At the level of the secondary structure, protein “beads” are able to fit in a spiral (like a door spring) and in the form of a folded layer, when the “beads” are laid by a snake and the remote parts of the beads are close together.
The laying of the protein in the secondary structure smoothly proceeds to the formation of the tertiary structure. These are separate globules in which the protein is laid compactly in the form of a three-dimensional ball.
Some protein globules exist and perform their function not one by one, but in groups of two, three or more pieces. Such groups are called quaternary protein structures.
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