What are the differences in inheritance of somatic and generative mutations? What is their significance for an individual organism and a whole species?

The primary role belongs to generative mutations that occur in germ cells. Generative mutations that cause a change in the signs and properties of an organism can be detected if a gamete carrying the mutant gene is involved in the formation of a zygote. If the mutation is dominant, then a new trait or property appears even in a heterozygous individual originating from this gamete. If the mutation is recessive, then it can manifest itself only after several generations upon transition to a homozygous state. An example of a generative dominant mutation in humans is the appearance of vesiculation of the skin of the feet, cataracts of the eye, and brachyphalangia (short-toed with phalanx deficiency). An example of a spontaneous recessive generative mutation in humans is hemophilia in individual families.
Somatic mutations by their nature do not differ from generative ones, but their evolutionary value is different and is determined by the type of reproduction of the organism. Somatic mutations play a role in organisms with asexual reproduction. So, in vegetatively propagating fruit and berry plants, somatic mutation can give plants with a new mutant trait. The inheritance of somatic mutations is currently gaining importance in studying the causes of cancer in humans. It is suggested that for malignant tumors, the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell occurs as a somatic mutation.

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