There are several main climate-forming factors:
1) Latitude of the area. The amount of solar heat and light entering the earth’s surface depends on the latitude of the territory. The equator (the most convex part of the globe) receives more solar radiation, and when moving to the poles, this indicator gradually decreases.
2) Proximity to the ocean. The main role here is played not so much by proximity to the ocean itself, but by what particular currents pass near the territory. If this is a warm current, the climate will be more humid, and if it is cold, it will be drier. That is why even deserts can form on the shores of the oceans. As, for example, the Namib desert, near the coast of which a cold Bengal current passes. Or Atacama, located next to the cold Peruvian current.
3) The south-eastern part of Africa (where the warm Mozambique current passes) receives more precipitation than the south-west of the mainland. But, it would seem, why the air masses can not bring moisture from the Indian Ocean deep into the continent? And here the third climate-forming factor, the relief, is already the reason. An obstacle to the penetration of air masses is the Dragon Mountains. Therefore, there is more precipitation on the eastern slopes of the mountains than on the western.
4) The size of the mainland. Even if the territory is located in one climatic zone, the climate in different parts of it can differ markedly. That is, in one climatic zone different climatic regions are distinguished. And the larger the mainland, the more climatic regions will be allocated on its territory as you move away from the oceans. For example, in the temperate zone, several types of climate are distinguished (from west to east): marine, temperate continental, continental, sharply continental, monsoon.
5) And another factor is the constant winds. They are formed due to the difference in pressure between the main zones. There are 4 of them:
– northeastern and southeastern represent the movement of air from the Arctic and Antarctic high pressure zones to moderate, where the pressure is lower;
– western (or western transport of air masses) – from the tropical high-pressure zone to moderate;
– trade winds – the movement of air from the tropics to the equator, where the pressure is lower (from the northeast in the northern hemisphere and from the southeast in the southern one);
– monsoons – are formed on the eastern coasts of the continents. These are winds that change direction twice a year. In summer, they blow from the ocean to land, in winter – vice versa.