In the development cycle of all plants, there is a strict alternation of two generations – the gametophyte and sporophyte and, accordingly, two methods of reproduction – sexual and asexual. At the same time, special organs (sporangia) are formed in the sporophyte, in which specialized cells, spores, are formed by meiosis. They consist of a nucleus and cytoplasm with a minimum amount of nutrients. Under favorable conditions, spores germinate and give rise to new organisms.
In addition, many plants are capable of vegetative propagation. In this case, daughter individuals develop from the autonomic organs (or parts thereof) of the mother plant.
Among animals, asexual reproduction is observed only in primitive forms – sponges, intestinal, some worms. Asexual reproduction of these animals is carried out by budding or fragmentation.
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.