What are the main damaging factors of the fire and give their characteristics.

The main damaging factors of the fire are: direct exposure to fire (open fire); high temperature at the fire; gas environment; smoke and toxic combustion products. People in the fire zone are affected, as a rule, at the same time by several damaging factors: open fire and sparks, high ambient temperature, toxic combustion products, smoke, low oxygen content in the air, falling parts of building structures, assemblies and installations.
Open fire is very dangerous, but cases of its direct impact on people are rare. More often they suffer from the radiant flux emitted by the flame.
The greatest danger to people is the high temperature of heated air, inhalation of which leads to damage to the upper respiratory tract, asphyxiation and death. Skin burns are also dangerous. A person who has received second degree burns on 30% of the body surface has little chance of survival.
In case of fires in modern buildings constructed using polymer and synthetic materials, toxic combustion products can affect a person. The most dangerous of them is carbon monoxide. Reacting with human hemoglobin, it causes oxygen starvation. A person becomes indifferent and indifferent to danger, he has numbness, dizziness, depression, coordination of movements is disturbed, respiratory arrest and death occur.
With the loss of visibility due to smoke, it is difficult for people to exit the fire zone, their movement becomes chaotic. Each person moves in an arbitrarily chosen direction, the evacuation of people becomes uncontrollable.
In a fire during the combustion of substances and materials, the oxygen content in the air decreases, this causes a deterioration in the motor functions of a person and a violation of his brain activity.
Often as a result of the fire, secondary factors of damage arise, sometimes not inferior in strength and danger to the effects of primary ones. These include explosions of oil and gas pipelines, tanks and cylinders with combustible and accidentally chemically hazardous substances, the collapse of building structures, the closure of electrical networks.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.