In cultural studies, art history and science, this cultural process at the turn of the XIX – XX centuries. was called “decadence”, and art and literature – decadent. The main property and peculiarity of decadence is confusion in front of a dramatically changing world: society turned out to be unable to rationally, scientifically explain the changes in politics and economics, new social relations, a new picture of the world.
The variety of styles and methods in the culture of the 20th century, which departed from the classical techniques of artistic creation, was called modernism. Translated from French modernism – “new, modern”.
Close to the concept of “modernism” is another concept – “avant-garde” (fr. Vanguard), which unites the most radical variety of modernism.
Modernism is a characteristic feature of 20th century aesthetics, independent of social strata, countries and peoples. In its best examples, the art of modernism enriches world culture through new means of expression.
Along with modernism, in parallel with it, realism existed and continued to develop. At the turn of the century, it underwent multifaceted changes, manifesting itself in different ways, but most strikingly – as neorealism, especially in cinema (L. Visconti, M. Antonioni, R. Rossellini, St. Kramer, A. Kurosava, A. Waida). Neorealism fulfilled the task of truthful reflection of social life, the struggle for social justice and human dignity.
The principle of neorealism found its expression both in art (R. Guttuso, E. Wyeth) and in literature (A. Miller, E. Hemingway, A. Zegers, E.M. Remarque). From the standpoint of neorealism, writers and artists worked: J. Amadou, G. Marquez, D. Siqueiros.