What are the main directions of modern biotechnology. What scientific methods underlie them? Give examples of the use of these methods.

The main areas of biotechnology:
• Production of microorganisms and cultured eukaryotic cells of biologically active compounds and drugs (enzymes, vitamins, hormones, antibiotics, immunoglobulins, etc.);
• production of food and animal feed;
• creation of new useful strains of microorganisms, plant varieties and animal breeds;
• development and use of biological methods for protecting plants from pests and diseases;
• the creation and use of biotechnological methods of environmental protection, etc.
The basis of modern biotechnology is genetic and cellular engineering in combination with a wide range of biochemistry methods

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