What are the main features of the biosphere as a global ecosystem?

The biosphere is a gigantic biogeocenosis that exists due to the close interconnection of all its structural components, it is a holistic and stable system that has passed a long path of historical development. The biosphere is the shell of the Earth where life exists or has ever existed, and which is or has been exposed to living organisms. Individual organisms in certain territories form populations, populations of different species are combined into biocenoses. Biocenoses and inanimate environmental factors form biogeocenoses or ecosystems. Each ecosystem borders on another ecosystem, there is an exchange of matter and energy. All Earth’s ecosystems are united by the cycle of matter and energy flow and form a single global ecosystem, which is called the biosphere.

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