What are the main functions of the parts of the brain stem?

The medulla oblongata is responsible for protective reflexes (coughing, sneezing, vomiting, tearing), the regulation of breathing, the activity of the digestive and cardiovascular systems. The midbrain regulates the movements arising under the influence of auditory and visual stimuli, orienting reflexes. The diencephalon conducts impulses from the sensory organs and skin to the cortex, contains a special zone – the hypothalamus, where the centers for controlling the work of the endocrine, autonomic nervous system, centers of hunger, fear, thirst, pleasure are located.

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