What are the main methods for studying human heredity and variability?

The main methods for studying human heredity and variability are:
– Genealogical method based on the construction and study of pedigrees.
– The twin method, the essence of which is a comparative study of the development of signs in twins.
– Cytogenetic method based on the microscopic study of chromosomes.
– The population-statistical method associated with the study of hereditary traits in large population groups (populations).
– Dermatoglyphic method, which involves the study of the skin texture on the fingers, palms and soles of the feet.
– Biochemical methods related to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of certain substances, primarily enzymes and products of reactions catalyzed by them.
– The method of somatic hybridization, the essence of which is the production and subsequent study of hybrid cells obtained by fusion of human somatic cells with cells of other biological species.
– Molecular genetic methods associated with the analysis of nucleic acid fragments, search and selection of genes, etc.

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