What are the main social doctrines that developed in the 19th century? What caused their appearance? Which of them have proven their vitality in practice?
Representatives: Katkov, Shuvalov.
Views on the future state structure: autocracy.
Ideas about the reforms necessary for the country: adjusting the reforms in order to prevent infringement of the rights and privileges of the nobility.
Methods for achieving goals: protecting the supreme power from the influence of liberal officials.
Representatives: Kavelin, Chicherin, Aksakov, Unkovsky.
Views on the future state structure: constitutional monarchy and popular representation.
Ideas about the reforms necessary for the country: public administration reforms, the introduction of an independent court and local self-government, creating conditions for the development of civil society.
Methods for achieving goals: the principle of gradual transformation.
3) Revolutionary camp.
Representatives: Chernyshevsky, Herzen, Tkachev, Lavrov, Bakunin, Ogarev, Belinsky.
Views on the future state structure: a state based on the principles of popular representation and socialism.
Ideas about the reforms necessary for the country: the adoption of a constitution, the allotment of land to the peasants, the abolition of the autocracy, the abolition of estates and equalization in rights, freedom of speech, conscience and assembly.
Methods for achieving goals: revolutionary.