What are the main social doctrines that developed in the 19th century? What caused their appearance?

What are the main social doctrines that developed in the 19th century? What caused their appearance? Which of them have proven their vitality in practice?

1) Conservatives.
Representatives: Katkov, Shuvalov.
Views on the future state structure: autocracy.
Ideas about the reforms necessary for the country: adjusting the reforms in order to prevent infringement of the rights and privileges of the nobility.
Methods for achieving goals: protecting the supreme power from the influence of liberal officials.

2) Liberals.
Representatives: Kavelin, Chicherin, Aksakov, Unkovsky.
Views on the future state structure: constitutional monarchy and popular representation.
Ideas about the reforms necessary for the country: public administration reforms, the introduction of an independent court and local self-government, creating conditions for the development of civil society.
Methods for achieving goals: the principle of gradual transformation.

3) Revolutionary camp.
Representatives: Chernyshevsky, Herzen, Tkachev, Lavrov, Bakunin, Ogarev, Belinsky.
Views on the future state structure: a state based on the principles of popular representation and socialism.
Ideas about the reforms necessary for the country: the adoption of a constitution, the allotment of land to the peasants, the abolition of the autocracy, the abolition of estates and equalization in rights, freedom of speech, conscience and assembly.
Methods for achieving goals: revolutionary.

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