Environmental emergencies are divided into situations related to changes in land conditions; situations associated with changes in the composition and properties of the atmosphere; situations associated with a change in the state of the hydrosphere; situations associated with a change in the state of the biosphere.
Emergencies related to changes in the state of land (soil, subsoil, landscape) include:
• catastrophic subsidence, landslides and landslides due to the development of mineral resources as a result of mining and other human activities;
• the presence of heavy metals (including radionuclides) and other harmful substances in the soil (soil) in excess of the maximum permissible concentrations;
• intensive soil degradation, desertification in large areas due to erosion, salinization and waterlogging of soils;
• crisis situations associated with the depletion of non-renewable natural resources;
• critical situations caused by overfilling of storages (dumps) with industrial and household wastes, their environmental pollution.
Emergencies related to changes in the composition and properties of the atmosphere (air) include:
• sudden changes in weather or climate as a result of human activities;
• excess of maximum permissible concentrations of harmful impurities in the atmosphere;
• increase in air temperature over cities;
• lack of oxygen in the air of cities;
• a significant excess of the maximum permissible level of city noise;
• the formation of a vast zone of acid precipitation;
• destruction of the ozone layer of the atmosphere;
• significant deterioration in atmospheric transparency.
Emergencies associated with a change in the state of the hydrosphere (aquatic environment) include:
• a sharp shortage of drinking water due to depletion or pollution of water sources;
• depletion of water resources necessary for the organization of agricultural water supply and technological processes;
• violation of economic activity and environmental balance due to pollution of inland seas and the oceans.
To emergency situations related to changes in the state of the biosphere,
• extinction of species of animals and plants sensitive to changes in environmental conditions;
• death of vegetation in large areas;
• a sharp change in the ability of the biosphere to reproduce renewable resources;
• mass death of animals.
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