What are the periods of postembryonic human development.

The most important trait of a person acquired by him in the process of evolution is the lengthening of the pre-reproductive period. Compared to other mammals, including anthropoid primates, human maturity occurs most late. Lengthening childhood and slowing growth and development expand learning and social skills. The reproductive period is the longest stage of the postembryonic development of a person, the completion of which indicates the onset of the productive period, or the aging period. The aging process affects all levels of living organization. Aging inevitably leads to death – a common to all living things finale of the individual development of organisms. Death is a prerequisite for a generational change, that is, for the continued existence and evolution of humanity as a whole.

Age period Morpho-physiological characteristic Social function
Newborn (first 10 days) The first breath, healing of the umbilical wound, reflexes of sucking, grabbing. Feeding with colostrum, breast milk. Overgrowth of the Botallal duct. Birth – for a child, the first psychological crisis, collisions with new conditions
Thoracic (10 days – 1 year) The first 3 months of milk feeding, development of the cervical muscles, overgrowth of the small fontanel, intensive growth, sleep – 20-22 hours a day The development of conditioned reflexes to parents, sounds, smells; the appearance of emotions
6 months: feeding milk (mixture), the introduction of juices, mashed potatoes; the child begins to sit down, holds toys, crawls, incisors erupt, sleep – 18-20 hours. Distinguishes between parents, relatives, reacts to irritation. The development of movements, begins to make sounds
12 months – feeding with milk or milk porridges, mixtures: soups, mashed potatoes, fruits. A large fontanel is growing, the skeleton is ossified, begins to walk, bends of the spine are formed. Weight increases 3 times, growth – 1.5 times. Sleep – 16-18 hours Character formation begins, plays with toys, pronounces 4-6 double-store words
Early childhood (1-3 years) 1-2 years: general nutrition with mandatory milk dishes twice a day. Milk teeth and musculoskeletal system are formed. Growth is slowing, weight gain is 2-3 kg per year. Sleep – 15-16 hours a day. It requires attention, is played, speech is developing. Accepts the concept of “no”
2-3 years: self food intake, general diet, but once milk or milk food is required. Daily regime. Good coordination of movements (running, jumping), growth increases by 5-9 cm per year, weight – by 2 – 2.5 kg. Sleep – 13-14 hours a day. The development of imagination, fantasy. Awareness of self. Comprehension of language sentences. The first “why?”
First childhood (4-7 years) 4-5 years: nutrition is common with adults, but more fortified. He makes complex movements, begins to sculpt, draw, write. Produced hygiene skills. Height – 106-110 cm, weight – 15-16 kg. Sleep – 12-13 hours The affirmation of one’s “I”, curiosity appears, imitates the activity of adults, distinguishes between the imaginary and the real
6-7 years: change of teeth for permanent, general diet. Improving motor reactions. The first growth jump is 10 cm. It is capable of learning activities. Sleep – 11-12 hours a day. School is the second psychological crisis period for a child, falling into new conditions. Speech is formed, there are own thoughts
Second childhood (boys – 8-12 years old, girls 8-11 years old) Enhanced growth, secretion of sex hormones, the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. The mode of the day is being developed. High-calorie, vitamin nutrition. Sleep – 10-11 hours There are preferences, tendencies. Developing mental abilities, personality formation
Adolescence (boys – 13-16 years old, girls 12-15 years old) Puberty. 2nd growth jump (arms and legs) – 10-15 cm. Excessive excitability and irritability. Nutrition requires 20% more protein. Sleep – 9-10 hours The period of internal contradictions. Acceleration – acceleration of mental and physical development
Youthful age (boys – 17-21 years old, girls – 10-20 years old). The completion of the growth and formation of the body. Sexual and psychological maturity. The final formation of the nervous system. High-calorie nutrition. Sleep – 8-9 hours The final formation of personality. Finding a place in life, getting professions.
Mature age is the first period. For women – 21-35 years old; for men – 22-35 years old The most productive period of life. Creation of a family. Birth and upbringing of children, work on achieving the goals of life. Gradual decrease in metabolic rate. Sleep – 8-9 hours a day. Marriage, birth and parenting. Development of own abilities. The choice of work.
Mature age is the second period. For women – 36-55 years old, for men – 36-60 years old Restructuring of the body, a gradual decrease in metabolic processes. Body aging. The appearance of wrinkles. Sleep – 8-9 hours The implementation of man as a person in a certain field of activity. Building a strong family.
Elderly age: men – 61-74 years old,

Women – 56-74 years old.

Decreased metabolic rate, extinction of reproductive function, accumulation of diseases Age of wisdom, passing on experience to next generations
Senile age: 75-90 years. Same Same
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.