What are the principles of modern plant breeding and livestock breeding?

The main methods of plant breeding in particular are selection and hybridization. For cross-pollinated plants, mass selection of individuals with the desired properties is used. Otherwise, it is impossible to obtain material for further crossing. If it is desirable to obtain a clean line – that is, a genetically homogeneous variety, then individual selection is used, in which offspring are obtained from self-pollination from one single individual with desirable characteristics.
The basic principles of animal breeding do not differ from the principles of plant breeding. However, the selection of animals has some features: they are characterized only by sexual reproduction; mostly very rare generational change (in most animals after a few years); the number of individuals in the offspring is small.

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