What are the reasons behind the lagging economy of Italy?

Italy had to spend a lot of effort on creating basic conditions for the development of a single economy – to abolish domestic duties and establish economic ties. Beginning in the 1840s, the industrial revolution ended only at the end of the ХIХ century, but mainly affected the North of Italy. There was not enough iron ore and coal. Moreover, competition between industrial goods from England and France interfered. In contrast, Italian industry did not have protected markets in the colonies, and domestic demand was weak due to the low purchasing power of the population. A feature of Italy was the presence of the public sector in the economy. The state owned some military factories and railways, had a monopoly on the production of salt, etc. Italy remained an agrarian country. In the North, in agriculture, capitalist relations developed. The south was the kingdom of the vast landowner latifundia, which was cultivated by the landless peasants and farm laborers. Severe conditions often forced them to leave their homes. It was from southern Italy that the main flow of emigrants to the USA came.

Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.