What are the reasons for protectionism? Give arguments for and against protectionist policies.

In conditions of intense international competition, the state restricts international trade by erecting various barriers in its path. The reasons for protectionism can be: the need to protect the branches of national defense; protecting young industries that cannot survive in an open market; protection from cheap foreign labor; stimulating GDP growth; response to the rigidity of foreign trade policies of other countries.
1) The next argument is the protection of young industries (industry protectionism). Quite often you can find that protectionism is necessary as a temporary measure so that the emerging promising industries, in which the level of costs is still high, could form and strengthen their positions. As these industries mature and become more efficient, the level of protectionist protection may decline. This argument is especially often made in relation to developing countries.
2) The next argument is an increase in state budget revenues. In many cases, the state pursues a policy of protectionism, because it needs additional revenues to cover the state budget deficit. This argument is especially popular in those countries where a normal tax system is in its infancy and there are significant difficulties in collecting domestic taxes. Again, it is much easier to collect customs duties organizationally than, for example, income tax. However, budget revenues in this case strongly depend on the degree of price elasticity of demand for imports, and with a sufficiently high elasticity, government revenues will increase not with an increase, but with a weakening of protectionism.
1) The next argument is to ensure the economic security and defense of the country. This argument with regard to industries producing strategic and military products is not economic, but rather military-political. It is argued that a country’s over-dependence on imports could put the country in a vulnerable position in the event of emergencies. However, even this seemingly fair argument requires careful concrete analysis. In particular, the very definition of the industries necessary to ensure national security can cause serious difficulties: these can include the production of weapons, food, computers, clothing, cars, energy resources, and much more. It is difficult to name an industry that would not contribute to the country’s security. In addition, protectionist incentives for the production of strategic non-renewable resources (such as gas and oil) may create dependence on imports in the future (especially for resource-poor countries).

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