What are the signs and symptoms that indicate head and spinal injuries?

Signs and symptoms of head and spine injuries:
• a change in the level of consciousness (drowsiness, confusion);
• severe pain or pressure in the head, neck, or back;
• tingling or loss of sensation in the fingers and toes;
• loss of motor functions of any part of the body;
• unusual lumpy formations on the head or spine;
• secretion of blood or cerebrospinal fluid from the ears or nose;
• severe bleeding in the head, neck or back;
• cramps;
• labored breathing;
• visual impairment;
• nausea or vomiting;
• persistent headache;
• difference in the size of the right and left pupil;
• loss of a sense of balance;
• bruises on the head, especially around the eyes and ears.
Such signs and symptoms, taken separately, do not always mean a serious head or spine injury, but if you suspect it, you should call an ambulance.

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