1) Parasitism is an interspecific relationship in which one species (parasite) uses another (host) as a living environment and as a food source. Both the parasite and the host have a number of adaptations. Parasite – mistletoe; sucker roots.
2) In commensalism, one of the partners can use the other for protection, as a means of transportation, or just eat at his expense. Birch creates a shadow for spruce undergrowth; legumes (for example, clover) and cereals that grow together on soils poor in available nitrogen compounds, but rich in potassium and phosphorus compounds (other examples are possible)
3) Housing. Epiphytes settle on the surface of the body of other plants. These are many lichens and mosses growing on tree trunks. Among the higher plants, epiphytes are especially numerous in tropical forests. Despite the close relationship between the epiphytes and the plants on which they settle, no active influence on each other was found. (other examples are possible)
or, the transfer of seeds and fruits of plants by animals – these are all examples of different forms of lodging (sinoykia)
4) You can give numerous examples of the formation of the environment, carried out through (allocation of substances by organisms, create a specific background, determine some environmental properties), especially in forests, in aquatic and soil ecosystems.
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