What are tRNA and mRNA genes? Describe how information about the structure of these molecules is realized.

The first type – mRNA, is synthesized in the cell nucleus. Its synthesis on one of the two DNA strands is catalyzed by RNA polymerase.
The synthesized mRNA repeats the sequence of nucleotides that make up the genetic code of DNA. The genetic code is represented by sequences of triplets of nucleotide bases, i.e. every three consecutive bases there is a “word” of the code. Each triplet encodes the position of one amino acid. From here, mRNA triplets determine the order of incorporation of amino acids into a protein molecule during its synthesis in the cell. For example, two consecutive triplets (guanine-gaunin-gaunin, GGG and guanine-thymidine-thymidine, GTT) are responsible for the placement of two amino acids – proline and glutamic acid in the protein molecule. The coding triplet of mRNA is called the codon. Therefore, the codon chain, in turn, constitutes a matrix for the synthesis of the amino acid chain of a protein. The synthesis of mRNA is preceded by the activation of nucleotides, the addition of two phosphate radicals obtained from ATP cells to each of them, i.e. comes with energy consumption.
The second type of RNA is tRNA. There are many different types of tRNAs in a cell, but each of them combines only with one of the 20 amino acids, “recognizes” the codon of the corresponding amino acid to mRNA and transports the amino acid to this place. Thus, each tRNA is a carrier of its specific amino acid to the site of assembly of the protein — to polysomes. Amino acids enter the synthesis of a specific protein after activation by their ATP molecule, i.e. only activated ATP amino acid binds to a specific tRNA molecule. A specific codon in tRNA that allows it to recognize a complementary codon in mRNA is also a triplet of nucleotide bases and it is called an anticodon. During the formation of the protein molecule, the anticodon bases are connected by hydrogen bridges to the bases of the mRNA codon. Due to this, amino acids line up one after another along the mRNA chain, forming the corresponding amino acid sequence in the protein molecule.

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