Volcanoes form in areas of the Earth where deep cracks in the earth’s crust create paths for magma to surface. This usually happens near the borders of the plates. The areas of the greatest distribution of volcanoes coincide with seismically active regions.
Volcanic eruption occurs due to the degassing of magma, that is, the release of gases from it. Everyone knows the degassing process: if you carefully open the bottle with a carbonated drink (lemonade, Coca-Cola, kvass or champagne), cotton is heard, and smoke appears from the bottle, and sometimes foam – this leaves the drink (that is, it degasses) . If you shake or heat the champagne bottle before opening it, a powerful jet will break out of it, and this process cannot be kept. And if the bottle is not tightly closed, then this stream can itself knock the cork out of the bottle.
The lava flow during the eruption of a magma volcano in a magma chamber is under pressure, as well as carbonated drinks in a closed bottle. In the place where the earth’s crust was “not tightly closed”, magma can escape from the bowels of the Earth, knocking out the “plug” of the volcano, and the stronger the “plug”, the stronger the eruption of the volcano. Rising up, magma loses gases and water vapor and turns into lava – magma depleted in gases.
Unlike effervescent drinks, the gases that are released during the eruption of the volcano are combustible, so they ignite and explode in the vent of the volcano. The force of a volcano explosion is so powerful that a huge “funnel” (caldera) remains on the site of the mountain after the eruption, and if the eruption continues, a new volcano begins to grow right in this cavity.
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