1. Ferns reproduce by spores, and flowering by seeds.
2. Flowering has double fertilization, in which, in addition to the zygote, endosperm storage tissue is formed. Flowering seed, in contrast to fern spores, has a supply of nutrients.
3. Fertilization in ferns occurs in the aquatic environment. Water is not needed to fertilize flowering plants; sperm are delivered to eggs (pollination) in flowering plants using wind, insects, and water.
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