The basis of organisms is composed of four elements – oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen.
Life on our planet arose in water, which caused its exceptional importance. The structure of all biosystems is associated with the unique properties of water: the polarity of its molecules, their ability to form hydrogen bonds, high surface tension, anomalously high heat capacity, as well as high melting and boiling points.
Potassium (K +) and sodium (Na +) ions create the transmembrane potential of the cell, which ensures the excitability of its outer membrane and the conduction of a nerve impulse.
Calcium ions (Ca2 +) are the components of the cell membrane of plants, from which the bones and teeth of animals are formed, they affect the reaction of blood coagulation, contraction of skeletal muscles.
Chlorine ions (C1-) are part of hydrochloric acid, which is a component of gastric juice, activates the activity of digestive enzymes and disinfects food.
Magnesium ions (Mg2 +) – a component of the chlorophyll molecule, they are contained in the bones and teeth of animals, take part in DNA synthesis, activate energy metabolism in the cell.
Iodine (I-) ions are part of the thyroid hormone – thyroxine, which affects the metabolic rate in the body and oxygen overcoming. With its lack or excess, hormonal diseases develop, for example, myxedema and bazedovy disease.
Iron ions (Fe2 +) are part of hemoglobin, myoglobin (oxygen-binding protein of skeletal and cardiac muscles), the lens and cornea of the eye, they are activators of enzymes, are involved in the synthesis of chlorophyll. The role of iron, which is part of hemoglobin (provides oxygen transport to tissues and organs) and myoglobin (deposits molecular oxygen and transfers it to the oxidative systems of the cell) is very important. Copper is involved in the processes of hematopoiesis, photosynthesis, catalyzes intracellular oxidative processes. Manganese helps increase plant productivity, activates the process of photosynthesis. Boron affects the growth processes of plants. Fluoride is part of tooth enamel, with its lack of caries develops, with an excess – fluorosis (softening of bone tissue). People associated with the production of fluoride and fluorine-containing substances suffer from fluorosis. Ions of molybdenum, chromium, cobalt, zinc serve as activators of a number of enzymes, affect hematopoiesis, metabolism. With a lack of these elements, the vital processes of organisms can be disrupted.