What chromosomes are called homologous? What are diploid and haploid sets of chromosomes?

Homologous chromosomes – a pair of chromosomes of approximately equal length, with the same centromere position and giving the same picture when stained. Their genes at the corresponding (identical) loci are allelic genes – alleles, that is, they encode the same proteins or RNA. A double, or diploid, set of chromosomes is characterized by the presence of paired chromosomes, which are identical in size, shape and nature of hereditary information. In some cells or organisms, there may be a single set of chromosomes called haploid.

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