a) On the process of soil formation – permafrost slows it down.
b) On the relief: when the permafrost thaws in summer, the soils sink, and lake sinkholes (thermokarst) depressions are formed. Ice hillocks – hydrolaccoliths with a height of 40 m to 30 m – bulgunnyakhi.
d) Many conifers do not grow on the permafrost (only larch grows, the roots of which extend in the upper soil layer).
e) Permafrost is a water-resistant layer, it does not allow the formation of groundwater, contributes to the formation of swamps, lakes and high water in rivers (the Yenisei is the deepest river in Russia).
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.