What components of nature are affected by permafrost?

a) On the process of soil formation – permafrost slows it down.
b) On the relief: when the permafrost thaws in summer, the soils sink, and lake sinkholes (thermokarst) depressions are formed. Ice hillocks – hydrolaccoliths with a height of 40 m to 30 m – bulgunnyakhi.
c) Naledi.
d) Many conifers do not grow on the permafrost (only larch grows, the roots of which extend in the upper soil layer).
e) Permafrost is a water-resistant layer, it does not allow the formation of groundwater, contributes to the formation of swamps, lakes and high water in rivers (the Yenisei is the deepest river in Russia).

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