What components of the environment can have a direct impact (both positive and negative) on the development of a particular organism

What components of the environment can have a direct impact (both positive and negative) on the development of a particular organism. What confirms such a sharp difference between the chickens shown in this figure?

For the normal development of the body you need a good, balanced diet, vitamins, water, sunlight, optimal temperature, ionic composition of water (for aquatic organisms). All species are sensitive to carbon dioxide.
All birds and mammals need vitamin D. It is formed in the skin under the action of sunlight from provitamins. The main function is to ensure the normal growth and development of bones, the prevention of rickets and osteoporosis. It regulates mineral metabolism and promotes the deposition of calcium in bone tissue and dentin, thus preventing bone osteomalacia (softening)

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