What contribution did Nicolaus Copernicus, Giordano Bruno, Galileo Galilei make to the ideas of contemporaries about the world and man? What scientific discoveries made by scientists of the 16th-18th centuries served as the foundation for the development of science in the 19th century?
Copernicus explained the change of day and night by the diurnal rotation of the Earth, the change of seasons by the tilt of the Earth’s axis of rotation to the plane of the Earth’s orbit and the rotation of the Earth around the Sun. Copernicus explained the apparent annual movement of the Sun along the ecliptic by the movement of the Earth around the Sun. He correctly positioned the planets according to their distance from the Sun and the Earth, and took the third place in this row. Copernicus explained the loop-like motion of planets against the background of stars by a combination of the motion of the observer with the Earth and the motion of the planet. The truth of the new, heliocentric system of the world was confirmed by the discoveries of Galileo.
Copernicus’ ideas were adopted by the Italian writer and philosopher Giordano Bruno (1548-1600). In his bold thoughts, he went beyond Copernicus. He argued that the stars are also suns, similar to ours, but very distant from us. He taught that the Universe is infinite and the number of stars and planets in it is infinite, that life exists on many of the planets. This further contradicted church teachings and undermined their credibility.
In 1609, Galileo Galilei made a small telescope (he knew about the invention of the telescope in 1608 in Holland) and used it to observe celestial bodies. By aiming a telescope at the sky, Galileo confirmed the theory of Copernicus with his discoveries.
The main feature of natural science discoveries in the second half of the 19th century. was that they radically changed the idea of the structure of matter, space, time, movement, the development of living nature, the place of man in nature, the origin of life on Earth.
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