The biological role of calcium. First of all, calcium is an essential structural component of bones and teeth. Calcium also regulates the permeability of cell membranes, and also initiates cell responses to various external stimuli. The presence of calcium in the cells or in the extracellular medium determines the differentiation of the cell, as well as muscle contraction, secretion and peristalsis. Calcium regulates the activity of many enzymes (including enzymes of blood coagulation systems). Calcium regulates the work of some endocrine glands, has a desensitizing and anti-inflammatory effect.
The main functions of calcium in the body:
– structural component of bones and teeth
– involved in muscle contractions
– regulates the permeability of cell membranes
– involved nerve cell signal conduction
– regulates cardiac activity
– participates in blood coagulation
The biological role of iodine. The main biological role of iodine is the synthesis of thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine), through which it implements the following effects:
– stimulates the growth and development of the body
– regulates tissue growth and differentiation
– increases blood pressure, as well as the frequency and strength of heart contractions
– regulates (increases) the rate of many biochemical reactions
– regulates energy metabolism, increases body temperature
– regulates protein, fat, water-electrolyte metabolism
– regulates the exchange of vitamins
– increases oxygen consumption by tissues
Iron is included in the group of essential (vital) trace elements.
Previously, due to its relatively high content in the body (4.0-4.5 grams in the body of an adult), it was attributed to macronutrients. However, 75-80% of the iron is concentrated in the hemoglobin of the blood and about 20% of the iron is stored in the liver and spleen. In the remaining tissues, its concentration is comparable to trace elements.
The biological role of iron
– provides oxygen transport (part of hemoglobin)
– provides electron transport in redox reactions of the body (part of cytochromes and iron-seroproteins)
– participates in the formation of active centers of redox enzymes
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