Ecosystem, or ecological system – a biological system consisting of a community of living organisms (biocenosis), their habitat (biotope), a system of bonds that exchange matter and energy between them. One of the basic concepts of ecology.
An example of an ecosystem is a pond with plants living in it, fish, invertebrates, microorganisms that make up the living component of the system, biocenosis. The pond as an ecosystem is characterized by bottom sediments of a certain composition, chemical composition (ionic composition, concentration of dissolved gases) and physical parameters (water transparency, trend of annual temperature changes), as well as certain indicators of biological productivity, trophic status of the reservoir and the specific conditions of the reservoir. Another example of the ecological system is deciduous forest in central Russia with a certain composition of forest litter, soil typical for this type of forest and a stable plant community, and, as a result, with strictly defined microclimate indicators (temperature, humidity, light exposure) and corresponding environmental conditions a complex of animal organisms. An important aspect that allows us to determine the types and boundaries of ecosystems is the trophic structure of the community and the ratio of biomass producers, its consumers and organisms that destroy biomass, as well as indicators of productivity and metabolism of matter and energy.
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