What eras in the history of Europe and the Middle East resemble the 13th century in Southeast Asia? What are the similarities?

In Southeast Asia, the 13th century was marked by the collapse of the ancient kingdom of Cambodia and the emergence of new barbarian peoples on the political stage: Thais, Burmese and Vietnamese. In Western Europe, a similar era was the formation of the first national states of Germany and France on the site of the disintegrated empire of Charlemagne in the 9th century. In the Middle East, this is reminiscent of the era of the collapse of the caliphate in the 10th century, when the national powers of the Persians, Turks and Egyptians were formed.

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