Throughout the history of mankind, the population has grown very slowly. Acceleration of population growth occurred during the period of modern history, especially in the XX century. Currently, the annual population growth is about 90 million people. At the end of the 90s. The world’s population was 6 billion. But in different regions of the world the population is growing unevenly. This is due to the different nature of population reproduction.
Under the reproduction of the population is understood the totality of the processes of birth rate, mortality and natural growth, which ensure the continuous renewal and change of human generations. Reproduction is influenced by the socio-economic conditions of people’s lives, relationships between people and relationships in the family.
Currently, there are two types of reproduction. The first type is characterized by relatively low birth rates, mortality, and natural growth. This type is characteristic for economically developed countries, where the natural increase is either very low or the natural population decline predominates. Demographers call this phenomenon depopulation (demographic crisis). The second type of reproduction is characterized by high birth rates and natural population growth. This type is typical for developing countries, where the gain of independence led to a sharp reduction in mortality, and the birth rate remained unchanged.
At the end of XX century. The highest rate of birth rate and natural increase was observed in Kenya, where the birth rate was 54 people per thousand, and the natural increase was 44 people. Such a phenomenon of rapid population growth in countries of the second type of reproduction is called a population explosion. Currently, such countries account for more than 3/4 of the world’s population. The absolute annual growth is 85 million people, that is, developing countries are already having and will have a decisive influence on the size and reproduction of the world’s population. Under these conditions, most countries seek to control the reproduction of the population by pursuing a population policy. Demographic policy is a system of administrative, economic, propaganda, and other measures by which the state influences the natural movement of the population in directions that are desirable for itself.
Remember: The process of learning a person lasts a lifetime. The value of the same knowledge for different people may be different, it is determined by their individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, knowledge is always needed at any age and position.