What features characterize the second stage of the study in the field of cytology?

The second stage begins with the 20th century. Optical microscopes are being improved, new methods for studying cells are being developed. By the beginning of the 20th century The first micromanipulator was designed, which made it possible to carry out operations on the cell, extract organoids, and examine them. In the 30s. Of the 20th century, the first electron microscope was created with an increase of 1 million times. A preparative centrifuge was later designed. This is an aggregate into which destroyed cells are placed. They are subjected to rotation with great speed. At low rotational speeds, large cell organoids, such as the nucleus, quickly settle to the bottom of the centrifuge tube. At higher speeds, smaller organoids – mitochondria – form a sediment. Thus, the smallest components of the cell are isolated and individually studied their structure and functions.

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