Australopithecus or “southern monkeys” – highly organized, upright primate primates, is considered to be the initial forms in the family tree. Australopithecus inherited many properties from its tree ancestors, the most important of which were the ability and desire for the diverse handling of objects with the help of hands (manipulation) and the high development of herd relations. They were quite terrestrial creatures, of relatively small sizes – on average, the body length was 120-130 cm, weight 30-40 kg. Their characteristic feature, as I noted above, was a two-legged gait and a straightened body position, as evidenced by the structure of the pelvis, skeleton of the limbs and skull. Free upper limbs made it possible to use sticks, stones, etc. The brain part of the skull was relatively large, and the front part was shortened. The teeth are small, located tightly, without diastema, with a tooth pattern characteristic of humans. They inhabited the open plains of the savannah type.
For the first time, the fossil remains of ancient people, called archanthropes, were discovered by the Dutchman E. Dubois on the island of Java in 1890. But only in 1949, thanks to a find near Beijing, 40 individuals of ancient people, together with their stone tools (called synanthropes), scientists agreed that it was the oldest people who were the intermediate “missing link” in the human genealogy. Archanthropists already knew how to use fire, thereby rising a notch above their predecessors. Pithecanthropus is a bipedal creature of medium height and physique, which, however, has preserved many monkey features both in the shape of a skull and in the structure of the facial skeleton. In synanthropes, the initial stage of development of the chin has already been noted. Judging by the finds, the age of the most ancient people is from 50 thousand to 1 million years …
Neanderthals were people of medium height, strong, massive build, standing closer to the modern person in the general structure of the skeleton. The volume of the brain box ranged from 1200 cm \ cube to 1800 cm \ cube, although their skull was different in shape from the skull of a modern person. The time of the appearance of man of a modern species falls at the beginning of the Late Paleolithic (70-35 thousand years ago). It is associated with a powerful leap in the development of productive forces, the formation of a tribal society and the consequence of the process of completing the biological evolution of Homo sapiens.
Neanthropes were tall people, proportionately folded. The average height of men is 180-185 cm, women – 163-160 cm. Cro-Magnons were distinguished by their long legs due to the large length of their legs. A powerful torso, a wide 8-thorax cell, and a highly developed muscular relief are an impressive characteristic, aren’t they?
Neoanthropes are multi-layered camps and settlements, flint and bone tools, residential buildings. This is a complex rite of burial, jewelry, the first masterpieces of fine art, etc.
The range of settlement of neoanthropes is unusually extensive – they appeared in various geographical areas and settled widely.