Environmental factors are divided into three groups: abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic.
Subgroups of abiotic factors:
climatic factors – light, air gas composition, precipitation, temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed;
edaphic (soil) factors – moisture, lumpiness, air and moisture permeability, density, acidity, mineral composition, organic matter content;
orographic factors (relief factors) – height above sea level, latitude, steepness, exposure;
geophysical factors – gravity, the Earth’s magnetic field, ionizing and electromagnetic radiation.
Subgroups of biotic factors:
intraspecific factors – for example, a tall birch shades a small birch;
interspecific factors – for example, a dense spruce inhibits the growth of herbaceous plants under its crown.
Subgroups of anthropogenic factors:
direct factors – cutting down trees, mowing grass, planting forests, shooting animals and birds, fish farming;
indirect factors – for example, a person absorbs oxygen and emits carbon dioxide, influences through industry, transport.