What ideas about evolution did Lamarck put forward?

His evolutionary theory JB Lamarck outlined in the work “Philosophy of Zoology” (1809), where he rejected the idea of ​​constancy of species and instilled numerous proofs of their change. He believed that the first living organisms arose from an absolutely inert inanimate nature through spontaneous generation. An important role in this process was played by certain fluids (caloric, electricity, etc.), penetrating into future organisms from the external environment, which are the causative agents of life and are responsible for further modifications of living bodies. Ancient life was represented by simple forms, which in the course of evolution gave rise to more complex ones. At the same time, Lamarck emphasizes that the development of nature cannot go in the opposite direction – from the complex to the simple, since there are strict objective causal dependencies, in which there is no place for chance. The process of complicating the organization of living organisms is long and gradual in nature. Lamarck calls it gradation. It is this development of nature, according to Lamarck, that reflects the essence of the evolution of living nature.

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