Adaptation – the adaptability of organisms to the action of environmental factors. There are various types of adaptation:
Passive fitness is based on increasing resistance to environmental factors by saving energy costs. It is characteristic of plants and animals that are not able to maintain a constant body temperature. Examples are suspended animation, numbness.
Active fitness – organisms resist the action of factors and maintain the constancy of the internal environment regardless of fluctuations in external conditions. Such adaptations are accompanied by energy costs and the development of a number of features of the external and internal structure. An example is maintaining a constant body temperature. Mechanisms – trembling (contraction of skeletal muscles); “Goosebumps” (smooth muscle contraction), sweating, expansion and narrowing of blood vessels, metabolic intensification.
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