What is and what is the differentiation of cells in the process of embryonic development?

Differentiation, or differentiation, is the process of the emergence and growth of structural and functional differences between individual cells and parts of the embryo. From a morphological point of view, it is expressed in the fact that several hundred types of cells of a specific structure are formed, which differ from each other. From non-specialized blastula cells, skin epithelial cells gradually appear, nerve and muscle cells appear, etc. From a biochemical point of view, the specialization of cells lies in their ability to synthesize certain proteins that are characteristic of only this type of cell. Lymphocytes synthesize protective proteins – antibodies, muscle cells – contractile protein myosin. Each type of cell forms “its own”, proteins unique to it. The biochemical specialization of cells is ensured by the selective activity of genes, i.e., in the cells of different embryonic leaves – the primordia of certain organs and systems – different groups of genes begin to function

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