Despite the differences in the structure and functions performed, all cells consist almost of the same chemical elements. The similarity of the elementary chemical composition of the cells of different organisms indicates the unity of wildlife. About 98% of the mass of any cell is accounted for by four elements: oxygen (75%), carbon (15%), hydrogen (8%) and nitrogen (3%). The remaining more than 70 elements that may be part of the cell pass 2% of its mass.
Organic compounds that make up the cell: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, etc. In addition to organic, inorganic substances are present in the cell – water and mineral salts.
Water in the cell quantitatively ranks first among all other chemical compounds.
Mineral substances in the cell can be in the form of dissolved salts or in a solid state. For example, in the cytoplasm of almost any cell there are crystalline inclusions consisting of poorly soluble salts.
Ions of salts are part of the cytoplasm of cells, determine its acid-base balance, activate many enzymes.
Compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and other inorganic substances are used for the synthesis of molecules of organic substances.
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