The species structure of a biocenosis is a combination of its constituent species, species diversity, and their quantitative ratio. Species included in the biocenosis can be massive, small, rare. If any type of plant (or animal) quantitatively predominates in the community, then this species is called the dominant species and has the largest number of individuals.
Among woody dominant species, environment-forming species are distinguished. Their life activity determines the nature of the biocenosis, creates the conditions for the existence of other species.
Species can be distributed differently in space according to their needs and habitat conditions. Such a distribution of species that make up the biocenosis in space is called the spatial structure of the biocenosis. Inhabited together, plants of one biocenosis are located in several tiers. Layering is especially pronounced in forests. The layering is also characteristic of the underground part of the community. In each tier there are dominant species.
The spatial structure is also traced in the horizontal direction, represented by a homogeneous or mosaic distribution of plants.
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