The stability of the social system, the preservation of social stability, the appearance of positive changes in society are provided by such a mechanism as social control. Sanctions and norms are its constituent elements. Society and the people around them set the rules of social behavior for the individual and exercise social control, monitoring the observance of social behavior. Social control in essence is the subordination of a person to a social group, society, it implies adherence to social norms. Control is exercised through coercion, public opinion, social institutions, group pressure.
Social sanction is the most important means of social control. When combined with social norms, they form a mechanism of social control. In a broader sense, a social sanction is all measures and means that are aimed at bringing an individual to the norm of a social group, stimulating him to have a certain behavior, and determine the attitude towards the actions performed.
Types of social sanctions.
Social sanctions are of four types: positive and negative, formal and informal.
A negative social sanction is a punishment for unwanted actions. It is directed against a person who has deviated from accepted social norms.
Positive sanctions are rewards for actions, approved by the society, aimed at supporting an individual who follows the norms.
Formal social sanctions – come from official, public, state bodies.
Informal sanctions are the reaction of members of a social group.
All types of sanctions form several combinations. Consider these combinations and examples of social sanctions. Formal positive – public approval from official organizations (awards, titles, awards, degrees, certificates). Informal positive – public approval, expressed in praise, compliment, smile, etc. Formal negative – punishments prescribed by law (fines, arrest, imprisonment, dismissal, etc.) Informal negative – remarks, ridicule, complaint, defamation and etc.