What is the advantage of cloning over traditional selection methods?

Creating multiple genetic copies of one individual using asexual reproduction is called cloning. In a number of organisms, this process can occur naturally, remember the vegetative propagation in plants and fragmentation in some animals. If a piece of the ray accidentally comes off a starfish, a new full-fledged organism is formed from it. In vertebrates, this process does not occur naturally. Cloning seems to be a promising method in animal husbandry. For example, when breeding cattle, the following technique is used. At an early stage of development, when the cells of the embryo are not yet specialized, the embryo is divided into several parts. From each fragment placed in the adoptive (surrogate) mother, a full-fledged calf can develop. In this way, you can create many identical copies of one animal that has valuable qualities. For special purposes, you can also clone individual cells, creating tissue cultures that can grow in infinitely long time in suitable environments. Cloned cells serve as a substitute for laboratory animals, since they can study the effects on living organisms of various chemicals, such as drugs. When cloning plants, a unique feature of plant cells is used. In the early 60s. XX century for the first time it was shown that plant cells, even after reaching maturity and specialization, under suitable conditions, can give rise to a whole plant. Therefore, modern methods of cell engineering make it possible to carry out plant breeding at the cellular level, i.e., to select not adult plants with certain properties, but cells from which full-fledged plants are then grown.

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