What is the composition and structure of carbohydrate molecules?

Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Most of them have the same ratio of hydrogen and oxygen in the molecule as in the water molecule.
All carbohydrates are divided into simple, or monosaccharides, and complex, or polysaccharides. Di- and polysaccharides are formed by combining two or more monosaccharide molecules. So, sucrose (cane sugar), maltose (malt sugar), lactose (milk sugar) are disaccharides formed as a result of the fusion of two monosaccharide molecules.

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